Tumor markers refer to substances that are characteristically present in or abnormally produced by malignant tumor cells, or substances that are produced by the stimulation response of the host to tumor, and can reflect the occurrence and development of tumor and monitor tumor response to treatment.
① Serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA): normal value is less than or equal to 3.45 μg/l. Elevated CEA was initially found in patients with colon cancer, and later in 30 percent of patients with stomach, urinary tract, ovarian, lung, pancreatic, breast, medullary thyroid, bladder, and cervical cancers.
② Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP): AFP is the earliest tumor marker discovered and is a common examination item in the diagnosis of primary liver cancer. About 87% of patients with primary liver cancer have AFP as high as 20 μg/l or more.
① Early detection of tumors;
② Tumor census and screening;
③ Diagnosis, differential diagnosis and staging of tumors;
④ Monitoring the efficacy of surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy for tumor patients;
⑤ indicators of tumor recurrence;
⑥ Prognosis of tumor.
① There is a variety of tumor marker tests, and the sensitivity or specificity of a single marker is often low, which cannot meet clinical requirements. In theory and practice, simultaneous determination of multiple markers is advocated to improve sensitivity and specificity.
② Tumor marker test is not the only basis for tumor diagnosis, and clinical symptoms, imaging examination and other methods should be considered comprehensively. Tumor diagnosis must have the diagnosis basis of tissue or cell pathology.
③ Due to individual differences in patients, specific clinical conditions and other factors, the analysis of tumor markers should be combined with clinical conditions and compared from multiple perspectives, so as to draw objective and true conclusions.
④ Some tumor markers can also be abnormally elevated under certain physiological conditions or in some benign diseases, so attention should be paid to identification.